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Lesson Transcript

Jo:Hello everyone and welcome to RussianPod101.com. This is the Upper Beginner Series, season 1, lesson 8 - How Much Time Should You Spend at the Russian Gym? I’m Jo.
Svetlana:And I am Svetlana. Privet.
Jo:In this lesson we're going to continue learning modal verbs in Russian, and we will also listen to Elena’s first conversation with her trainer.
Svetlana:The conversation is between Elena and the trainer, and it takes place in the gym.
Jo:The speakers are strangers, so they’ll be using formal Russian.
Trainer: Вот расписание занятий в спортзале.
Elena: Спасибо. Сколько раз в неделю мне следует делать физические упражнения?
Trainer: Всё зависит от результата, который вы хотите достичь.
Elena: Ну я бы хотела быть похожей на Мадонну.
Trainer: Ну тогда вам придется поселиться в спортзале.
Trainer: Vot raspisaniye zanyatiy v sportzale.
Elena: Spasibo. Skol 'ko raz v nedelyu mne sleduyet delat ' fizicheskiye uprazhneniya?
Trainer: Vsyo zavisit ot rezul 'tata, kotoriy vy hotite dostich '.
Elena: Nu ya by hotela byt ' pohozhey na Madonnu.
Trainer: Nu togda vam pridyotsya poselit 'sya v sportzale.
Trainer: Here is your training schedule in the gym.
Elena: Thank you. How many times a week should I work out?
Trainer: It depends on what results you want to achieve.
Elena: I would like to look like Madonna.
Trainer: Well then, you'll have to live at the gym.
Jo:Elena has a really ambitious goal.
Svetlana:Yeah, and the trainer sounded a bit sarcastic about it!
Jo:Yeah, why does everybody want to look like a Hollywood star?
Svetlana:Don’t you wanna be rich, famous and beautiful?
Jo:(laughs) Well, just 2 out of the 3 would be fine!
Svetlana:The perception of beautiful women has changed with time in Russia.
Jo:What was Russia’s idea of beauty in the past?
Svetlana:Well, it was actually the exact opposite of today’s standards. They were quite heavy, curvy women. They usually put on a lot of make-up, wore a super tight corset, and of course, decorated themselves with various accessories.
Jo:Was it that people believed that the bigger you were, the richer you were?
Svetlana:Partially, yes. Big women were also considered to be the healthiest, warmest and friendliest.
Jo:I wonder how that look has changed so quickly and dramatically?
Svetlana:(laughs) Good question. I don’t know!
Jo:I’ll have to look into it.
Jo: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word we shall see is...
Svetlana: сколько [natural native speed]
Jo: how many, how much, how long
Svetlana: сколько [slowly - broken down by syllable] сколько [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: следовать [natural native speed]
Jo: to follow
Svetlana: следовать [slowly - broken down by syllable] следовать [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: физические упражнения [natural native speed]
Jo: physical activities
Svetlana: физические упражнения [slowly - broken down by syllable] физические упражнения [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: результат [natural native speed]
Jo: result
Svetlana: результат [slowly - broken down by syllable] результат [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: достигать [natural native speed]
Jo: to achieve
Svetlana: достигать [slowly - broken down by syllable] достигать [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: быть похожей [natural native speed]
Jo: to look alike
Svetlana: быть похожей [slowly - broken down by syllable] быть похожей [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: придется [natural native speed]
Jo: to have to
Svetlana: придется [slowly - broken down by syllable] придется [natural native speed]
Jo: And last...
Svetlana: поселиться [natural native speed]
Jo: to live, to settle
Svetlana: поселиться [slowly - broken down by syllable] поселиться [natural native speed]
Jo:Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Svetlana:The first phrase is достигать результат
Jo:“to achieve a result”
Svetlana:Yes, and the verb достигать actually has several meanings.
Jo:The first meaning is “to achieve”; the second meaning is “to arrive” or “to reach”; and the third is “to amount to” or “to come to”.
Svetlana:The verb достигать, meaning “to achieve something”, is usually used with the nouns цель, which means “goal”, and результат, which means “result” in the genitive case. For example,
Я наконец-то достигла своей цели и получила водительские права.
Jo:“I finally achieved my goal and received my driver’s license.” What about the other meanings of this verb? Are they used often?
Svetlana:Yes, let me give you some examples of using this verb to mean “reaching something” or “arriving somewhere”: Автобус наконец достиг города
Jo:“A bus finally arrived in the city”. How about the meaning “to come to” and “to amount to”?
Svetlana:This is usually used when somebody is talking about age, money, or other countable nouns. For example, Сумма достигла одного миллиона.
Jo:“The amount has reached 1 million.” Okay what’s the next key word for this lesson?
Svetlana:The next one is приходиться.
Jo:“to have to” or “must”.
Sv It’s a synonym of the modal verb должен we learned in our last lesson. I’ll give you another example using this verb-
Ему приходилось добираться до работы более часа каждый день.
Jo:“He has to commute to work for more than an hour every day.”
Svetlana:Like many Russian verbs, this verb has another meaning, which is “to fit” or “to be suitable”. For example, Надеюсь десерт придётся по вкусу.
Jo:“I hope the dessert will suit her taste.” Okay and what is the last key word for this lesson?
Svetlana:The last phrase is быть похожим.
Jo:“to look alike” or “to look like”. In most cases you won’t need the verb “to be”.
Svetlana:That’s right. You can say that “she looks like her mother” by just using the adjective похожий. Let’s translate this example into Russian.
Она похожа на свою маму.
Jo:Great. Now let’s move on to the grammar!
Jo:In this lesson, we’re going to learn more about modal verbs in Russian. We had another modal verb in the dialogue earlier. Svetlana, what was this verb and what sentence did we use it in?
Svetlana:The modal verb was Следовать, and the sentence was- Сколько раз в неделю мне следует делать физические упражнения?
Jo:"How many times a week should I work out? " The modal verb is translated as “should” and it is used when we are giving advice or a recommendation. It is always used with infinitive verbs and conjugated with nouns in the dative case. Do you remember how personal pronouns change in the dative case?
Svetlana:Let me quickly remind you. Мне, Тебе, Ему, Ей, Им, Вам.
Let’s see how they are used in a sentence.
Ему следовало бы позвонить мне раньше.
Jo:“He should have called me earlier.”
Svetlana:This modal verb is frequently used with the particle бы, to build sentences in unreal conditions. For example,
Ей следовало бы подольше отдохнуть после операции.
Jo:“She should have rested a bit longer after the operation.” Okay great. Will these modal verbs that we’ve covered in the last two lessons change in past and future tenses?
Svetlana:Luckily, our verbs можно, нужно, должно и следовало won’t change forms in the past or the future tense. But we need the verb “to be” for both the past and future forms.
Jo:Russian can be confusing! Something is always changing.
Svetlana:Yes, but you will see how easy it is with the verb “to be”
Jo:Okay let’s see.
Svetlana:The past tense form of the verb “to be” is было. So let’s put it together with our modal verbs. должно было
Jo:must be
Svetlana:можно было
Svetlana:нужно было
Svetlana:the verb следовало will be used with the particle бы. следовало бы
Jo:“Should be.” Can you give us example sentences?
Svetlana:Sure. Письмо должно было уже дойти.
Jo:“The letter must have been delivered already.”
Svetlana:Ему можно было доверить секреты.
Jo:“You could tell him your secrets.”
Svetlana:Great! Now let me give you the future tense form of the verb “to be” . It is будет “will be”. должно будет, нужно будет , можно будет
Jo:In English they will be translated exactly the same as the present tense forms.
Svetlana:Right! Here is an example sentence.
Там можно будет посмотреть хороший фильм.
Jo:“We will be able to watch a good movie there.”
Svetlana:Listeners, ever have any Russian language or lesson-related questions?
Jo:Or do you have some feedback for us?
Leave us a comment or ask a question on the lessons page!
Svetlana:It's super simple. Go to RussianPod101.com...
Jo:...click on comments,
Svetlana:...enter your comment and name,
Jo:...and that's it!
Svetlana:Commenting is a a great way to practice writing and reading in Russian.
Jo:So go to RussianPod101.com, and make a comment now.


Jo:Okay, that’s it for this lesson. Make sure you check the lesson notes, and see you next time.