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Lesson Transcript

Jo:Hello everyone and welcome to RussianPod101.com. This is the Upper Beginner Series, season 1, lesson 7: What CAN I eat in Russia? I’m Jo.
Svetlana:And I’m Svetlana. Privet.
Jo:In this lesson we're going to learn modal verbs in Russian, and we will also listen to Elena getting upset because she has to give up her favorite sweets.
Svetlana:The conversation is between Elena and her doctor, and it takes place in the doctor’s office.
Jo:Elena and the doctor will be using relatively formal Russian.
Doctor: Вот специально разработанный для вас рацион питания. Вы обязательно должны есть овощи и фрукты, ещё нужно исключить жирное, соленое и сладкое.
Elena: Как же я останусь без десерта?
Doctor: Лучшим десертом станут фрукты. Иногда можно есть горький шоколад и мед.
Elena: Мда, боюсь моё психологическое здоровье пострадает.
Doctor: Vot spetsial 'no razrabotanniy dlya vas ratsion pitaniya. Vy obyazatel 'no dolzhny yest ' ovoschi i frukty, yeschyo nuzhno isklyuchit ' zhirnoye, solyonoye i sladkoye.
Elena: Kak zhe ya ostanus ' bez deserta?
Doctor: Luchshim desertom stanut frukty. Inogda mozhno yest ' gor 'kiy shokolad i myod.
Elena: Mda, boyus ' moyo psihologicheskoye zdorov 'ye postradayet.
Doctor: Here are some nutrition tips specifically for you. You have to eat more fruits and vegetables, and avoid fatty, salty and sweet food.
Elena: So you're saying I cannot have dessert?
Doctor: The best dessert for you would be fruit, and on occasion you can have some bitter chocolate or honey.
Elena: Hmm, I think my mental health is going to suffer.
Jo:Elena sounds a bit stressed out about having to give up sweets!
Svetlana:(laughs) Well, who wouldn’t be stressed?
Jo:True. I’ve heard a lot about Russian food and drinks but are there any traditional Russian sweets?
Svetlana:For sure! Russian people really like sweets. Anything that might go with tea will do.
Jo:Like what?
Svetlana:Well, for example, Russian ‘pryaniki’, or “gingerbread” in English, is very popular. Sometimes it is called “honey bread”.
Jo:Oh I think I know of it. There are different types, aren’t there?
Svetlana:Yes, the most famous types of ‘pryaniki’ are made in Tula city. Another popular Russian sweet is Ptichie Moloko. It is a thick marshmallow on sponge cake that’s covered with chocolate.
Jo:Oh, my mouth is watering. It sounds delicious!
Jo: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word we shall see is...
Svetlana: специальный [natural native speed]
Jo: specific
Svetlana: специальный [slowly - broken down by syllable] специальный [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: разработанный [natural native speed]
Jo: developed
Svetlana: разработанный [slowly - broken down by syllable] разработанный [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: обязательно [natural native speed]
Jo: sure(ly), definitely, certainly
Svetlana: обязательно [slowly - broken down by syllable] обязательно [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: солёное [natural native speed]
Jo: salty food
Svetlana: солёное [slowly - broken down by syllable] солёное [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: жирное [natural native speed]
Jo: fatty food
Svetlana: жирное [slowly - broken down by syllable] жирное [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: сладкое [natural native speed]
Jo: sweet food
Svetlana: сладкое [slowly - broken down by syllable] сладкое [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: исключить [natural native speed]
Jo: to exclude, to avoid
Svetlana: исключить [slowly - broken down by syllable] исключить [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: разрешаться [natural native speed]
Jo: to be allowed
Svetlana: разрешаться [slowly - broken down by syllable] разрешаться [natural native speed]
Jo: And last...
Svetlana: пострадать [natural native speed]
Jo: to suffer
Svetlana: пострадать [slowly - broken down by syllable] пострадать [natural native speed]
Jo:Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Svetlana:The first phrase is Исключить солёное.
Jo:“to avoid salty food”.
Svetlana:We used it in this sentence-
Вы обязательно должны есть овощи и фрукты, исключить жирное, соленое и сладкое.
Jo:“You have to eat more fruits and vegetables, and avoid fatty, salty and sweet food.”
Svetlana:The verb Исключить literally means “to exclude” or “to leave out”. The noun солёное is translated as an adjective, which is “salty” in English.
Jo:But in Russian it’s a noun, just like the other two nouns we used in the dialogue.
Svetlana:Yes, жирное and сладкое mean “fatty” and “sweet”, respectively.
Jo:Ok. Let’s move to our next key word.
Svetlana:Next up is the verb разрешаться.
Jo:“to be allowed” or “to be permitted”. Which sentence did we use it in?
Svetlana:Иногда разрешается есть горький шоколад и мед.
Jo:“On occasion you can have some bitter chocolate or honey.” or more literally “you are allowed to have bitter chocolate or honey”.
Svetlana: In this sentence the verb разрешаться, meaning “to be
allowed”, is used with the verb есть in the infinitive form. For example - Здесь не разрешается курить.
Jo:“You are not allowed to smoke here”. Okay, what is the last key word?
Svetlana:It is the verb пострадать.
Jo:“to suffer”, from the sentence “Hmm, I think my mental health is going to suffer.”
Svetlana:Мда, боюсь моё психологическое здоровье пострадает. The verb пострадать is derived from the verb страдать.
Jo:What is the difference between those two verbs?
Svetlana:Well, the main difference is the prefix по - . It gives the verb страдать a meaning of completion. Let’s compare two examples -
Она всю жизнь страдала из-за плохого зрения.
Jo:“She has been suffering her whole life because of her poor eyesight.”
Svetlana:and Они пострадали в аварии.
Jo:“They got into a car accident”.
Svetlana:The verb страдать indicates the process of suffering while the verb пострадать indicates negative consequences of some action.
Jo:I see how it works. Okay now, let’s move on to the grammar.
Svetlana:In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use three modal verbs - Должен, Можно and Нужно.
Jo:Let’s take a closer look at each of them. The first one is a verb which means “have to” or “must”. It is used when you want to strongly give advice, a recommendation, or a command, as in our dialogue.
Svetlana:Вы обязательно должны есть овощи и фрукты, ещё нужно исключить жирное, соленое и сладкое.
Jo:"You have to eat more fruits and vegetables, and avoid fatty, salty and sweet food." This verb is always used with another verb in its infinitive form. For example:
Svetlana:Он должен заплатить за ужин.
Jo:“He must pay for dinner.”
Svetlana:This verb also has another meaning.
Jo:What’s that?
Svetlana:“to owe”. For example -
Он должен мне большую сумму денег
Jo:“He owes me a huge amount of money”
Okay, Let’s move on to the next verb.
Svetlana:The next modal verb is Можно.
Jo:“can”, “could”, or “may”. It is mostly used to ask for permission, and it will always be followed by an infinitive.
Svetlana:Right. For example -
Можно мне взять кусочек торта?
Jo:“Can I have a piece of cake?”
Which sentence from the dialogue uses this verb?
Svetlana:На десерт можно фрукты.
Jo:“The best dessert for you would be fruit.” Okay, and what is the last modal verb for this lesson?
Svetlana:It is Нужно.
Jo:“to need” or “to be necessary”. This verb \will also always be used with infinitives. For example-
Svetlana:Нужно чистить зубы два раза в день.
Jo:“You should brush your teeth twice a day.” And can you remind us where in the dialogue this modal verb was used?
Svetlana:Sure. It was “Вы обязательно должны есть овощи и фрукты, ещё нужно исключить жирное, соленое и сладкое.”
Jo:"You have to eat more fruits and vegetables, and avoid fatty, salty and sweet food."
Svetlana:Listeners, do you know the secret to rapid progress?
Jo:Use all of the materials at your disposal.
Svetlana:Lesson notes are an important part of this program.
Jo:They include a transcript and a translation of the conversation...
Svetlana:...key lesson vocabulary...
Jo:and detailed grammar explanations.
Svetlana:Lesson notes accompany every audio or video lesson.
Jo:Visit the website and feel free to print them out.
Svetlana:Using the lesson notes with the audio and video media will rapidly increase your progress.
Jo:To download the notes for this lesson go to RussianPod101.com.


Jo:Okay, that’s it for this lesson. Thanks for listening, everyone.


Please to leave a comment.
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RussianPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Have you had Russian sweets before?

RussianPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 07:06 PM
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Hello robert groulx,

You are welcome!


Team RussianPod101.com

robert groulx
Friday at 07:39 AM
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thank you for the lesson transcript


RussianPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 01:39 PM
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Hello Jean-Claude Corbeil,

Thank you for your comment.

Regarding "I am afraid" - you are right. We will fix it.

Regarding "mental health" I think the translation is Ok, because "mental health" is almost same as "psychological health" (according to medical sources).


Team RussianPod101.com

Jean-Claude Corbeil
Tuesday at 09:21 AM
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Hello, the lessons of these series are very good. However, I have one important suggestion for the translation. They are inaccurate. For example:

боюсь моё психологическое здоровье пострадает

You should translate as follows:

I am afraid I'm afraid my psychological health will suffer.

You miss the very important word: afraid, You need to use the word for word translation in this case (since it is accurate in english to say it this way), if not, people will think that the word боюсь means to think... The translations for learning a language is definaltely not the same as the translations that would be done from an official translator during a live conference trying to tell the same story with the same emotions, etc.

Thursday at 09:41 AM
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Dear Michael,

You feedback is great, thank you.


Team RussianPod101.com

Tuesday at 10:56 PM
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I really like when you provide Russian proverbs and discuss them. I already took the idioms and proverbs lesson, but more is always helpful. In this instantce, I tried to get some more cultural insight on the proverb "По одежке встречают - по уму провожают" because I did not understand the wisdom when the proverb is translated into English.

The sense I got of the meaning was "First we must make a nice impression to get in the door (for the mind to follow)"

or "First we say 'now nice', and then we say 'how wise'". Or using the translation you provided, a more native but free translation might be "Your clothes provide the invitation [that is necessary to] get somebody's mind to follow". What was missing from the translation in the cultural notes for me was a sense of cause and effect or necessity.