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Lesson Transcript

Jo:Hello everyone and welcome to RussianPod101.com. This is the Upper Beginner Series, season 1, lesson 6 “You could hardly become an astronaut in Russia”. I’m Jo.
Svetlana:And I am Svetlana. Privet.
Jo:In this lesson we're going to learn compound complex predicates in Russian sentences. We’ll also get the results back from Elena’s tests, as well as hear the doctor telling her to change to a healthier lifestyle.
Svetlana:The conversation is between Elena and her doctor, and it takes place in the doctor’s examination room.
Jo:Elena and the doctor will be using relatively formal Russian.
Doctor: Результаты вашего медосмотра готовы.
Elena: Отлично! Чем порадуете.
Doctor: Хорошая новость - жить будете! Но космонавтом стать не получится.
Elena: Мой муж будет рад это слышать. Я ему нужна здесь.
Doctor: Да, но если вы хотите, чтобы у ваших внуков была здоровая бабушка, придется приложить некоторые усилия.
Elena: Я готова, доктор!
Doctor: Rezul 'taty vashego medosmotra gotovy.
Elena: Otlichno! Chem poraduyete.
Doctor: Horoshaya novost ' - zhit ' budete! No kosmonavtom stat ' ne poluchitsya.
Elena: Moy muzh budet rad eto slyshat '. Ya yemu nuzhna zdes '.
Doctor: Da, no yesli vy hotite, chtoby u vashih vnukov byla zdorovaya babushka, pridetsya prilozhit ' nekotoriye usiliya.
Elena: Ya gotova, doktor!
Doctor: The results of your medical check-up are back.
Elena: Great! Any good news?
Doctor: Yes, it's good news! You're not going to die. However, you would hardly qualify to be an astronaut.
Elena: My husband will be happy to hear that. He needs me here.
Doctor: Sure, but if you want your grandchildren to have a healthy grandmother, you need to make an effort.
Elena: I'm ready, doctor!
Jo:So, Elena got some good news!
Svetlana:Yes, luckily for her and her husband.
Jo:The doctor has a very good sense of humor. Some people might think that his jokes about health are not appropriate, especially if they are made by a doctor.
Svetlana:Yeah I know, but Russians like making fun of each other. Although Elena and the doctor use formal Russian, their relationship is already very casual because they have met several times now.
Jo:So making fun of your friends, even if it’s so-called black humor, is totally fine. That’s very different to the stereotypical serious and gloomy Russian!
Svetlana:Yeah, that’s true. But if you think about it, could anyone possibly be serious and gloomy during Russian parties or zastoliye?
Jo: Oh, the Russian style party when everybody gathers around a big table loaded with food and drinks, and spend hours talking, laughing, and singing!
Svetlana:You remembered! Yes, they are lots of fun! And it’s the place where all jokes, anecdotes, and life stories are shared. Russians also like ‘chastushka’, which are short funny songs and of course long toasts.
Jo:Well, I hope I’ll have the chance to take part in a Russian ‘zastoliye’ one day.
Jo: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. The first word we shall see is...
Svetlana: результат [natural native speed]
Jo: result
Svetlana: результат [slowly - broken down by syllable] результат [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: радовать [natural native speed]
Jo: to make happy
Svetlana: радовать [slowly - broken down by syllable] радовать [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: новость [natural native speed]
Jo: news
Svetlana: новость [slowly - broken down by syllable] новость [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: космонавт [natural native speed]
Jo: astronaut
Svetlana: космонавт [slowly - broken down by syllable] космонавт [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: получаться [natural native speed]
Jo: to result in, to turn out as
Svetlana: получаться [slowly - broken down by syllable] получаться [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: внуки [natural native speed]
Jo: grandchildren
Svetlana: внуки [slowly - broken down by syllable] внуки [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: бабушка [natural native speed]
Jo: grandmother
Svetlana: бабушка [slowly - broken down by syllable] бабушка [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: приложить [natural native speed]
Jo: to put
Svetlana: приложить [slowly - broken down by syllable] приложить [natural native speed]
Jo: Next
Svetlana: усилие [natural native speed]
Jo: effort
Svetlana: усилие [slowly - broken down by syllable] усилие [natural native speed]
Jo: And last...
Svetlana: приходиться [natural native speed]
Jo: to have to
Svetlana: приходиться [slowly - broken down by syllable] приходиться [natural native speed]
Jo:Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Svetlana:The first word is быть нужным.
Jo:“To need”. Literally, this phrase is translated as “to be needed”.
The verb “need” is always conjugated with the nouns and pronouns in the dative case. Svetlana, can you give us some conjugations of this verb with personal pronouns?
Svetlana:Sure. Here they are-
Svetlana:мне нужно
Jo:“I need”
Svetlana:тебе нужно
Jo:“You (singular) need”
Svetlana:ему нужно
Jo:“He needs”
Svetlana:ей нужно
Jo:“She needs”
Jo:We need
Svetlana:вам нужно
Jo:“You (plural) need”
Svetlana:им нужно
Jo:“They need”
Jo:When stating exactly what you need, the noun comes after our phrase in the accusative case. For example,
Svetlana:Мне нужна тетрадь.
Jo:“I need a notepad” The word
Sv ; “тетрадь” is put into the accusative case. As you already know Russian nouns have a gender and a number
Svetlana:So the noun “тетрадь” is in the feminine, singular form. The form of the verb will change depending on the noun that comes after the verb “быть нужным”. For example, the form of the verb “нужен” will be used with masculine nouns in singular form.
Им нужен сигнал.
Jo:“They need a signal”. “Signal” is a singular, masculine noun.
Svetlana:With a neuter noun in singular form we need to conjugate our verb as follows- нужно.
For example, Тебе нужно пальто?
Jo:“Do you need a coat?” And we also have nouns in the plural form right?
Svetlana:Yes, in plural form our verbs become нужны. For example, Ей нужны карандаши.
Jo:“She needs pencils” Okay, very good.
Let’s summarize the lesson up to this point.
Svetlana:The verb быть нужным will take the following forms depending on the nouns coming right after it.
Svetlana:нужен -
Jo:singular, masculine
Svetlana:нужна -
Jo:singular, feminine
Jo:singular, neuter
Jo:Okay, I think this one is quite clear. But what if the verb comes after our phrase?
Svetlana:Very good question. It is very easy. We just leave it in dictionary form. For example, Мне нужно позвонить.
Jo:“I need to call”. Okay, it is very easy. Now let’s move to our next key word.
Svetlana:The next one is the phrase “приложить усилия”.
Jo:“To make an effort”.
Svetlana:The noun усилия means “effort”, more precisely “efforts” because it is put in plural form. The verb приложить means “to put”.
Jo:However it has slightly different meaning as well, which is “to attach”, “apply”, or “enclose” For example.
Svetlana:Я приложил своё резюме к письму.
Jo:“I attached my resume to this letter”.
Okay, Let’s move on to the grammar.
Jo:In this lesson, we are going to talk about complex predicates. Predicates play an important role in Russian sentences, and complex predicates make sentences even more expressive and descriptive. We used complex predicates or compound verbs in this lesson’s dialogue. Let’s refresh your memory.
Svetlana:жить будете
Jo:literally “will be alive”
Svetlana:стать не получится
Jo:“would hardly become”
Svetlana:будет рад слышать
Jo:literally “would be happy to hear”
Svetlana:and придется приложить
Jo:“have to make (an effort)
All four of these examples represent different types of compound predicates.
There are two main types. Compound Verbal Predicates and Compound Nominal Predicates. The first one consists of a main verb conjugated with a subject it relates to and the infinitive. Let’s listen to the example.
Svetlana:Он хочет поступить в институт.
Jo:“He wants to enter the University”.
Svetlana:хочет поступить is a Compound Verbal Predicate. We have the main verb, хочет, or “wants”, conjugated with the pronoun Он , or “he”. Then we have the infinitive поступить; “to enter”.
Here is another example.
Ты должен учиться.
Jo:“You have to study” where “to study” is in the infinitive form and “to have to” is the main verb. Okay, the second type of compound predicate is the Compound Nominal Predicate. The first part of this complex predicate consists of the main verb and the second part is represented with adverbs, nouns or adjectives, which add to the characteristic of the main action.
Svetlana:I think the explanation might make it sound more complicated than it actually is. Let’s take a look at the examples to see that it’s actually very easy.
Он был врачом.
Jo:“He was a doctor.”
The verb “to be” is frequently used to build complex predicates.
Svetlana:So in this example we see the verb “to be” in past form, был, and the noun “doctor”, врач, which adds the descriptive meaning to this predicate. Let me give you another example - Я всегда рад быть полезным.
Jo:“I am always happy to be helpful.” Here we have the verb “to be” and the adjective “helpful”.
Jo:Attention perfectionists! You're about to learn how to perfect your pronunciation.
Svetlana:Lesson Review Audio Tracks.
Jo:Increase fluency and vocabulary fast with these short, effective audio tracks.
Svetlana:Super simple to use. Listen to the Russian word or phrase...
Jo:then repeat it out loud in a loud clear voice.
Svetlana:You'll speak with confidence knowing that you're speaking Russian like the locals.
Jo:Go to RussianPod101.com, and download the Review Audio Tracks right on the lessons page today!


Jo:Okay. That’s it for this lesson.