Vocabulary (Review)

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Lesson Transcript

Oksana: [Привет всем!]
Eddie: Eddie here. Lower Intermediate Series Season 1, Lesson 14. Are you guilty of using another’s possessions in Russia? We only have two episodes left before we figure out how the story with Vlad and Ira ends.
Oksana: That’s right. Right now the party is over and Vlad has probably seen Ira off to her house, I'm guessing.
Eddie: So the conversation is on the way back home, right?
Oksana: I guess so. They have to discuss the party, right? I mean she was invited there on purpose, she came there on purpose…
Eddie: So you don’t assume she just stayed there overnight.
Oksana: In his dormitory? After all the stuff he pulled? I don’t think so.
Eddie: Ok, you know best. Let’s listen to the dialogue and find out what’s really going on there.
Oksana: Извини, я не хотела тебя позорить перед твоими друзьями…
Eddie: Да ладно, сам виноват, мне до сих пор стыдно…
Oksana: Кстати, в тот раз ты меня подвозил на чёрном джипе, он тоже не твой?
Eddie: Нет, это машина моего друга…
Oksana: Может, познакомишь? Шучу!
Eddie: Надеюсь! Ир, можно пригласить тебя на ужин? Once again,more slowly.
Oksana: Еще раз, медленнее. Извини, я не хотела тебя позорить перед твоими друзьями…
Eddie: Да ладно, сам виноват, мне до сих пор стыдно…
Oksana: Кстати, в тот раз ты меня подвозил на чёрном джипе, он тоже не твой?
Eddie: Нет, это машина моего друга…
Oksana: Может, познакомишь? Шучу!
Eddie: Надеюсь! Ир, можно пригласить тебя на ужин? Once again, with a translation.
Oksana: Еще раз, с перводом. Извини, я не хотела тебя позорить перед твоими друзьями…
Eddie: I'm sorry, I didn't want to embarrass you in front of your friends…
Oksana: Да ладно, сам виноват, мне до сих пор стыдно…
Eddie: It's okay, it's my fault in the first place…I'm still ashamed of what I've done…
Oksana: Кстати, в тот раз ты меня подвозил на чёрном джипе, он тоже не твой?
Eddie: By the way, last time you gave me a lift in a black jeep, is it also not yours?
Oksana: Нет, это машина моего друга…
Eddie: No, it's my friend's car…
Oksana: Может, познакомишь? Шучу!
Eddie: You should introduce me to him! I'm joking!
Oksana: Надеюсь! Ир, можно пригласить тебя на ужин?
Eddie: I hope so! Ira, may I invite you to dinner?
Eddie: Hmm, you are right. It doesn’t seem like she stayed over and it doesn’t seem like they’re even close.
Oksana: He’s trying, he’s trying hard. Slowly, but surely.
Eddie: But she finally gave up on her mocking and teasing and apologized.
Oksana: But that’s the most important thing, knowing when to stop. So you get what you want - in her case just making fun of him - but when you feel that moment when a person is about to lose it, you stop and turn into a fluffy kitten.
Eddie: How woman of you.
Oksana: Joking.Ok, let’s listen to the vocabulary.
Eddie: The first word is…
Oksana: [Позорить]
Eddie: To put to shame, to embarrass.
Oksana: [Позорить]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Перед]
Eddie: In front of.
Oksana: [Перед]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Да ладно]
Eddie: It’s ok, forget it.
Oksana: [Да ладно]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Виноватый]
Eddie: Guilty.
Oksana: [Виноватый]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [До сих пор]
Eddie: Still, until now.
Oksana: [До сих пор]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Стыдно]
Eddie: It’s a shame, ashamed, embarrassed.
Oksana: [Стыдно]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Кстати]
Eddie: By the way.
Oksana: [Кстати]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Подвозить]
Eddie: To give a ride, give a lift.
Oksana: [Подвозить]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Познакомить]
Eddie: To introduce somebody to somebody.
Oksana: [Познакомить]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Шутить]
Eddie: To joke.
Oksana: [Шутить]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Надеяться]
Eddie: To hope.
Oksana: [Надеяться]
Eddie: Next.
Oksana: [Пригласить]
Eddie: To invite.
Oksana: [Пригласить]
Eddie: Let’s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word worth mentioning in the dialogue is…
Oksana: [Позорить]
Eddie: It means “to embarrass” or “to put to shame”, but you can also play with and ending [ся] here.
Oksana: Right. You can have the word [позориться], which means “to embarrass oneself”. For example, [Я не хочу выступать, не хочу позориться].
Eddie: “I don’t want to perform, don’t want to embarrass myself.” It would probably be more useful and helpful to remember this word together with the next one from the dialogue.
Oksana: Yes, the word [перед]. [Позорить перед] means “to embarrass in front of”.
Eddie: Actually the word [перед] is not that easy. This word has three main meanings and each of them are equally frequently used. Let’s remember them in certain categories: time, location and person.
Oksana: When it comes to the time category, the preposition [перед] has a meaning of “before”, indicating the time of an event preceding the next event. For example, [Перед сном], “before sleep”, or [Я поел перед уроком], “I ate before class”.
Eddie: Just remember that you can’t use it in the meaning of “earlier” like in English. You can’t say “Before I used to be a vegetarian” with this word. You can only use it in the context of “before” something. You always need that “something”.
Oksana: Yes. The next category we defined for this word was location, right?
Eddie: Right. When we use this word in the context of location, it takes a meaning of “in front of”.
Oksana: Yes, for example [перед зеркалом], “in front of the mirror”, [перед домом], “in front of the house”.
Eddie: Good. The last meaning of [перед] is more abstract although it can also be translated as “before”, “in front of” when used in the following context. Oksana, an example, please.
Oksana: Sure, I got several. [Извиниться перед кем-то]
Eddie: To apologize to somebody.
Oksana: [Я виноват перед тобой]
Eddie: I'm guilty in your eyes.
Oksana: [Мне стыдно перед ним]
Eddie: I'm ashamed in front of him.
Oksana: [Зачем ты перед ним отчитываешься?]
Eddie: “Why do you report to him?” Next we have a very conversational expression used extremely often in Russia, the phrase [Да ладно].
Oksana: Remember, in the previous lesson we learned the word [ладно] separately.
Eddie: Yes, it meant “ok” or “fine”, expressed agreement in a word.
Oksana: Right, but today we added the word [да] to it. So we have [да ладно] now. And here we should pay your attention to the intonation.
Eddie: Yes, be careful. Intonation alters the meaning of this expression drastically.
Oksana: So first the example from our lesson. In the dialogue, Vlad says [да ладно] in the context of “it’s ok, no problem, don’t sweat it”, something like this.
Eddie: His voice, in this case, goes from down to up like [Да ладно].
Oksana: Right. But there is another meaning this expression takes pretty often. If we say [Да ладно?!] with a strong intonation and the voice going from up to down, it will express your surprise of disbelief, kind of like “you’re kidding me”.
Eddie: Oksana, [Я женюсь].
Oksana: [Да ладно!] That was a nice one. Eddie just said he’s getting married, which I don’t believe or don’t want to believe probably.
Eddie: Don’t worry, Oksana. I'm not getting married, not just yet.
Oksana: [Да ладно] I'm ok with that. Ok, I think we drilled this phrase enough. Next we have the phrase [Сам виноват].
Eddie: [Виноват] is the word for “guilty”, a sort adjective of it.
Oksana: Right. The normal adjective would be [виноватый] or [виноватая] if it’s a female. So if you are not familiar with this word yet, remember it as a normal adjective first, just like I told you now.
Eddie: And I want to turn your attention to the word [сам]. It’s a masculine form of the word “myself, yourself, himself, itself”. Unlike in English, Russian “self” is not differentiated by persons “I, you, he” etc. but it’s modified according to genders and number.
Oksana: Right. So “I, myself” and “she, herself” would sound the same in Russian, [сама], because “I” and “she” are both females. Here are some more examples. [Я сделаю это сам]
Eddie: I will do it myself.
Oksana: [Ты сама знаешь]
Eddie: You know it yourself.
Oksana: [Я сделаю это сам]
Eddie: I will do it myself (a man talking).
Oksana: [Ты сама знаешь]
Eddie: You know it yourself (talking to a woman).
Oksana: [Они сами предложили это]
Eddie: “They suggested it themselves” (“they” being plural). Next we have a phrase, [до сих пор], which is pretty simple. You just have to remember it as it is. It means “still” or “until now”.
Oksana: Like in the dialogue, [Мне до сих пор стыдно], “I'm still ashamed”.
Eddie: By the way, this [Мне стыдно] is also something we should make a stop on. [Стыдно] is a feeling, right? When we’re talking about feelings, emotions, conditions - sad, hurt, excited, warm, cold, etc. - about a person, we usually put this person, whether it’s his name, position or pronoun into the dative case, and the condition itself is used in the form of an adverb and always ends in [о].
Oksana: Right. So if you know the adjective, [холодный], for example, “cold”, and you want to say that “you are cold”, you should put yourself, I mean the pronoun that represents you, into the dative case. So [Я] becomes [Мне].
Eddie: And then change the indicative [холодный] into the adverb [холодно] with the [о] ending.
Oksana: Yes, here are some examples. [Мне плохо]
Eddie: I feel bad.
Oksana: [Ей весело]
Eddie: She’s having fun (talking about feelings).
Oksana: [Ему скучно]
Eddie: He’s bored.
Oksana: [Мужчине грустно]
Eddie: A man is sad.
Oksana: [Девочке холодно]
Eddie: “A girl is cold.” All the words that are left in this lesson are pretty simple. For example, the word [кстати]. It just means “by the way”. The usage is the same as in English.
Oksana: Or the word [подвозить]. It means “to give a lift” or “give a ride” to someone. Here are a couple of examples. [Он меня подвез]
Eddie: He gave a lift.
Oksana: [Давай я тебя подвезу домой]
Eddie: “Let me give you a ride home.” Nothing complicated except the conjugations of the word, but that we’ll figure out later. Next we have the word [может], which means “maybe”. You’ve probably heard the expression [может быть] which basically means the same thing, “maybe”. There are some nuances in the usage of these two words, but mostly they’re interchangeable.
Oksana: Yes, they are. The next word is [познакомить]. I guess there is nothing new to you here. You’ve heard this word thousands of times in the phrase [Приятно познакомиться], “Nice to meet you”.
Eddie: That’s right, but [познакомиться] is a reflexive verb, a reciprocal reflexive verb, which means “to meet each other”. Today we left out the ending [ся] and got a verb for “introduce someone to someone”. Oksana, [Познакомь меня со своей подругой].
Oksana: You want me to introduce you to my friend? No, Eddie, you are getting married, remember?
Eddie: [Я шучу] Our next word, by the way, [шутить] means “to joke”.
Oksana: You can say [Ты шутишь?], “Are you joking?” It’s also used pretty often, but when you say “I'm joking” don’t say [я шучу]. Most often it’s used without a pronoun, just[шучу].
Eddie: Ok, we have only two words left.
Oksana: Right. [Надеяться и пригласить], [Надеяться] means “to hope” and most often used in the phrase [Я надеюсь], which means “I hope”.
Eddie: And [Пригласить] means “to invite”. Usually it’s used with two prepositions, [на ] and [в].
Oksana: So if we’re talking about some event like a concert or dinner, we say [Пригласить на концерт. Пригласить на ужин]. And if we’re talking about places like a movie theater or a restaurant, we say [Пригласить в кино. Пригласить в ресторан].

Lesson focus

Eddie: Ok, grammar time. In the previous lessons we refreshed our knowledge about the grammar cases. We touched upon five of them, which were what, Oksana?
Oksana: Nominative or just dictionary forms of the nouns. Accusative case, which is used to form phrases like “I want something”, “I see something”, where the “something” is a noun in the accusative case.
Eddie: Then we learned the dative case which involves giving something or communicating something, like in the sentence “I gave Anna an apple”, where Anna is a receiver and has to be put into the dative case. Then the instrumental case which indicates the means by which something was done, like in “I go by bus”, where “bus” is the means and has to be put into the instrumental case.
Oksana: Right. We also learned the prepositional case which is used after the prepositions [о], “about”, [в] “in”, [на] “at”. For example [На столе], “on the table”. “The table” is in the prepositional case.
Eddie: We have only one case left to learn, the genitive case. The primary use of the Russian genitive case is to show possession. In English, it’s often indicated with an apostrophe S or the word “of”. Example, “mom’s book”, “a friend of dad’s”. The owner is the noun that’s used in the genitive case.
Oksana: You should use the genitive in most cases where you would use the word “of” in English.
Eddie: We had an example of the genitive case in our lesson, didn’t we?
Oksana: Yes, we did. The phrase [Машина моего друга], “my friend’s car” or “a car of my friend’s”.
Eddie: Right. And this is related to the concept of ownership of the genitive. Can you give us some more examples to understand the usage of this case a bit better?
Oksana: Sure. Listen carefully. [Сумка Марии]
Eddie: “A bag of Maria’s. Maria’s bag.” “Maria” is in the genitive case.
Oksana: [Прическа женщины]
Eddie: “A hairstyle of a woman.” Here “woman” is in the genitive case.
Oksana: [Телефон директора]
Eddie: A telephone of the director. The director’s phone.
Oksana: [Чашка чая]
Eddie: A cup of tea.
Oksana: [Кружка пива]
Eddie: “A mug of beer.” Great, and how do we form the genitive case, Oksana?
Oksana: It’s different for each gender, as usual. So if the noun is masculine, like [директор] or [чай], we change the endings into [а] or [я] and get [директора, чая].
Eddie: If the noun is feminine, the ending in the genitive case will be[и] or [ы], right? So [Мария] becomes [Марии] and [женщина] becomes [женщины].
Oksana: Yes, it’s a little more complicated with the plurals, though. Unfortunately, even they differ according to genders.
Eddie: Well, I don’t think it’s too difficult. If the nouns are masculine, the ending would most probably be either [ей] or [ов], like [врачей] or [сотрудников], “of the doctor’s” and “of the coworker’s”.
Oksana: And feminine nouns very often just lose their last letter when said in genitive plurals. So for example [название книги], “the name of the book” will sound as [названия книг] in plural, “the names of the books”. So [книга] just loses its ending and becomes [книг].


Eddie: It will be much easier for you to understand if you accompany this audio lesson with the PDF files.
Oksana: That’s true. Take a look right now, systematize your knowledge.
Eddie: Ok. Thanks for being with us. See you next time.
Oksana: [Пока всем. До встречи!]