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Lesson Transcript

Yuriy: Hello and welcome to RussianPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner season 1, lesson 19 - How Do You Create Art in Russia? I’m Yuriy.
Elena: Привет, меня зовут Елена. Hello, I’m Elena!
Yuriy: In this lesson, you'll learn about the instrumental case in Russian.
Elena: The conversation takes place at Lera's home.
Yuriy: The speakers are friends, so they’ll be using informal Russian.
Алекс:Лера, это твои картины?
Лера:Да. Тебе нравятся?
Алекс:А то! Ты красиво рисуешь карандашом!
Лера:Спасибо. Меня научил мой дедушка. Он - художник и умеет рисовать и карандашом, и акварелью, и даже обыкновенной ручкой.
Aleks: Lera, eto tvoi kartiny?
Lera: Da. Tebe nravyatsya?
Aleks: A to! Ty krasivo risuyesh' karandashom!
Lera: Spasibo. Menya nauchil moy dedushka. On - khudozhnik i umeyet risovat' i karandashom, i akvarel'yu, i dazhe obyknovennoy ruchkoy.
Алекс:Лера, это твои картины?
Yuriy: Lera, are these pictures yours?
Лера:Да. Тебе нравятся?
Yuriy: Yes. Do you like them?
Алекс:А то! Ты красиво рисуешь карандашом!
Yuriy: Of course! You draw beautifully with pencils.
Лера:Спасибо. Меня научил мой дедушка. Он - художник и умеет рисовать и карандашом, и акварелью, и даже обыкновенной ручкой.
Yuriy: Thank you. My grandpa taught me. He's a painter and can draw with pencils, with watercolor, and even with ordinary pens.
Yuriy: Elena, who is your favorite Russian painter?
Elena: I like Ivan Aivazovsky. Have you ever heard about him?
Yuriy: I have! He's a marine painter famous all over the world, especially for his masterpiece “The Ninth Wave”.
Elena: Yes, that one is great.
Yuriy: He managed to show the hope of people who’d survived a heavy night storm.
Elena: By the way, that picture is in the Russian museum now.
Yuriy: Ivan Shishkin is another favorite.
Elena: Yes, he's a famous landscape painter. Did you know that his work “Morning in a pine forest” was often used as a picture on small carpets or towels in the Soviet Union?
Yuriy: No, I didn't. But I do know that despite the fact that 4 bears are painted in the picture, people started to call it “Three bears” instead of “Four bears”.
Elena картина [natural native speed]
Yuriy picture
Elena картина [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena картина [natural native speed]
Elena рисовать [natural native speed]
Yuriy to draw
Elena рисовать [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena рисовать [natural native speed]
Elena карандаш [natural native speed]
Yuriy pencil
Elena карандаш [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena карандаш [natural native speed]
Elena научить [natural native speed]
Yuriy to teach
Elena научить [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena научить [natural native speed]
Elena художник [natural native speed]
Yuriy painter
Elena художник [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena художник [natural native speed]
Elena дедушка [natural native speed]
Yuriy grandfather
Elena дедушка [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena дедушка [natural native speed]
Elena акварель [natural native speed]
Yuriy watercolor, aquarelle
Elena акварель [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena акварель [natural native speed]
Elena обыкновенный [natural native speed]
Yuriy ordinary
Elena обыкновенный [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena обыкновенный [natural native speed]
Elena ручка [natural native speed]
Yuriy pen
Elena ручка [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena ручка [natural native speed]
Elena уметь [natural native speed]
Yuriy to be able to, can
Elena уметь [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Elena уметь [natural native speed]
Yuriy: Let’s take a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word in this lesson is…
Elena: the feminine noun картина.
Yuriy: This can be translated as “picture," as in a work of art; an image that is painted or drawn. For example...
Elena: В Эрмитаже находятся картины знаменитых художников.
Yuriy: "There are paintings by famous artists in the Hermitage."
Elena: The second meaning of this noun is "movie."
Yuriy: For example?
Elena: Картина Никиты Михалкова “12” была номинирована на премию “Оскар”.
Yuriy: "Nikita Mikhalkov's film "12" was nominated for an Oscar." The third meaning of this noun is “a situation” or "a general condition." What’s an example?
Elena: Следователь восстанавливает картину убийства.
Yuriy: "The investigator restores a picture of a murder.” Ok, what’s the next word?
Elena: It's ручка/
Yuriy: "pen." For example.
Elena: Учитель исправляет ошибки красной ручкой.
Yuriy: "The teacher is correcting mistakes with a red pen."
Elena: Another meaning of this noun is “handle”
Yuriy: As in the part of an object that you hold with your hands. For example...
Elena: У чемодана оторвалась ручка.
Yuriy: “The suitcase handle tore away.” Great! Okay, now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Yuriy: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the instrumental case. The word “instrumental” derives from “instrument.” That’s why it’s easy to guess the main function of the instrumental case.
Elena: Yes, it shows by what means the action is performed.
Yuriy: What are the main questions asked using the instrumental case?
Elena: Кем? and Чем?, which are "by what?" or "with what?" and "by whom" or "with whom?" respectively.
Yuriy: There are several rules for how you form the instrumental case. In the case of masculine nouns, you just need to change their endings according to the following rules. If it’s in singular form, and the stem ends in a consonant, you need to add the ending [ом] to that consonant. For example...
Elena: банк
Yuriy: “bank” becomes...
Elena: банком
Yuriy: If it’s in singular form, and the noun ends in [й] or [ь], you just need to change the ending to [ем]. For example…
Elena: музей
Yuriy: “museum” becomes...
Elena: музеем
Yuriy: And the last rule for masculine nouns is that nouns ending in [ий] will change to the ending [ием]. An example please.
Elena: планетарий
Yuriy: “planetarium” becomes...
Elena: планетарием
Yuriy: Are there any exceptions to these instrumental cases, Elena?
Elena: Of course, and we have included these in the lesson notes for you.
Yuriy: What about feminine nouns?
Elena: Feminine nouns ending in [a] and [я] change their endings to [ой] and [ей] respectively .
Yuriy: How about some examples?
Elena: книга
Yuriy: “book” becomes...
Elena: книгой
Yuriy: Another one, please.
Elena: неделя
Yuriy: “week” becomes...
Elena: неделей. But feminine nouns ending in [ь] change their endings to [ью].
Yuriy: For example...
Elena: площадь
Yuriy: “square” becomes...
Elena: площадью
Yuriy: One more please.
Elena: ночь
Yuriy: “night” becomes...
Elena: ночью. Also, feminine nouns ending in [ия] will change their ending to [ией].
Yuriy: For example...
Elena: Италия
Yuriy: “Italy” becomes...
Elena: Италией
Yuriy: The rule for neuter nouns is so simple. You add the ending [м] to the ending of any noun. For example.
Elena: окно
Yuriy: “window” becomes...
Elena: окном
Yuriy: One more...
Elena: море
Yuriy: “sea” becomes...
Elena: морем
Yuriy: Of course, there are a lot of exceptions to this rule, so please check the lesson notes.


Yuriy: Ok, that’s all for this lesson. Thanks for listening everyone, and we’ll see you in our next lesson.
Elena: До скорого встречи!