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Lesson Transcript

Привет Всем. С Вами Светлана. Hi everybody! I’m Svetlana.
Welcome to RussianPod101.com’s Русский язык за три минуты. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Russian.
In the last lesson, we learned how to express possession by putting nouns in the genitive case. In this lesson we will learn the instrumental case, which usually marks the method of the action, like the English preposition "with" or “by means of”. Why is it called instrumental? Because it represents the ‘instrument’ that was used to carry out the action.
Let me give you an example:
Писать письмо ручкой. “To write the letter with a pen.” In this sentence we have two nouns, the first one “письмо” meaning “letter”. It is in the accusative case which you already know, and the 2nd one “ручкой” meaning “with a pen” put in the instrumental case. See, it is an instrument for writing.
Now let’s get down to the endings of nouns in the instrumental case.
Masculine nouns ending with consonants will have the ending- ОМ in the instrumental case. For example:
Факс - “Fax” becomes Факсом.
Отправить факсом. “Send by fax.”
If the masculine noun ends with “Й” or “Ь” we replace it with “ЕМ”:
Учитель - Teacher becomes Учителем.
Чай - Tea becomes Чаем
Both masculine and feminine nouns that end with “A” get the ending “Ой” in the instrumental case: For example:
Папа - “Father” becomes Папой.
Мама - “Mother“ becomes Мамой.
The “Я” ending of feminine nouns should be replaced with “Ей”, for example:
Неделя - “Week” becomes Неделей.
Станция - “Station” becomes Станцией.
But be careful! If the feminine nouns end with “Ь” we simply have to add the vowel “Ю” to the noun,
for example-
Ночь - “Night” becomes Ночью
Дверь - “Door” becomes Дверью
Neuter nouns ending with “О” and “Е” also stay the same – we simply add a consonant “М”
Окно - Window becomes окном.
Здание - Building becomes зданием.
As you might already notice, not all nouns can be an instrument for an action. Some nouns are put in the instrumental case to identify the originator of an action, especially in sentences with passive voice or which specify your occupation.
Ужин, приготовленный мамой. “Dinner prepared by mother.“
Папа работает учителем. “Father is working as a teacher.”
Usually the instrumental case is used after the following prepositions:
за - “behind,” между - “between,” над - “above”
перед - “in front of” or “before, под - “under,” с - “with”
And after the following verbs – быть, находиться - “to be”, называться - “to be called”, становиться - “to become”, увлекаться - “to be interested in,” восхищаться - “to admire”.
Let’s now have a look at some examples of the instrumental case with these prepositions and verbs.
Я нахожусь перед зданием. “I am in front of the building.”
Я увлекаюсь спортом “I am interested in sports.”
Я - за станцией. “I am behind the station.”
The words “зданием, спортом, and станцией” are in the instrumental case after the verbs “нахожусь or увлекаюсь” and prepositions “перед or за”. I hope you’re following this!
Finally, let`s take a look at personal pronouns in the instrumental case. They are quite often used with the preposition “C” or “CO” (meaning “with”)
я - Мной - “Me”
ты - Тобой - “You”
он - Ним - “Him”
она - Ней - “Her”
мы - Нами - “Us”
вы - Вами - “You” (plural)
они - Ими - “Them”
For example:
Я разговариваю с Вами. “I am talking with you.”
Он пойдет с Тобой. “He goes with you.”
Good job, everyone! That’s it for this lesson. I know it’s a lot to absorb but take your time and you’ll see how helpful it will be in the future. Next time we’ll learn our last case, which we already mentioned a while ago – the prepositional case. See you soon in our next Русский язык за три минуты lesson. Пока Пока

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RussianPod101.comVerified
Friday at 6:30 pm
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RussianPod101.comVerified
Friday at 12:09 am
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Hello Eliane,


Preposition "c" has many meanings. If you use it in the meaning of "with", then you should use Instrumental case. If "c" means "from" in your sentence, the after it you should use Genitive case.


Elena

Team RussianPod101.com

Eliane
Wednesday at 9:25 pm
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Hello, thank you very much for the lessons!


You mentioned that we use the intrumental and genetive case with the preposition "c".

So how do we know which one to chose?

Thanks.😊

RussianPod101.comVerified
Wednesday at 5:54 pm
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Hello Alain,


Thank you for your comment :smile:


Elena

Team RussianPod101.com

Alain
Monday at 12:19 am
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Ah, these Russians !!!! Not surprising they so good chess players :laughing:

RussianPod101.comVerified
Thursday at 6:30 pm
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Hi Ken Thompson!


Haha, don't give up!!

I'm sure it will take you less time than 11 years :sweat_smile: For sure!


Russian is a difficult language, but if you have the motivation to learn, it will be no problem for you!

Good luck, and let us know if you have any more questions!


Engla

Team RussianPod101.com

Ken Thompson
Thursday at 1:00 am
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Maybe in 11 years I will have learned the Instumental case!

RussianPod101.comVerified
Tuesday at 10:46 pm
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Hello Ken Thompson,


Thank you for listening to our lessons. :smile:

Yes, all Russians use the endings correctly. Basically they study Russian about 11 years at school. :sweat_smile:


Elena

Team RussianPod101.com

Ken Thompson
Monday at 4:12 am
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Hi


This is only one of the 6 cases in Russian, but is so difficult. There are so many different endings.


So to learn this 5 times more for the other cases, to learn for us English speakers is so hard.


My question is - do all Russians know and learn all these different endings at school?


When you speak to each other do you use all the correct endings to all 6 cases?


I hope is not a silly question to ask!


But to remember all the six case endings to every word must be difficult!


Thanks


I enjoy learning but get very frustrated at imes